You have no items in your shopping cart.

Essential fatty acids: Choose the best source

Food State Essential Fatty Acid Complex


Formula for 600mg of stabilised Food State Essential Fatty Acid complex (2 tablets)


Alpha linolenic acid     (omega 3)       - 65 mg

Oleic acid                    (omega 9)       - 28 mg

Linoleic acid                (omega 6)       - 19 mg

Palmitic acid                                       - 15 mg  

Stearic acid                                         -15 mg

Mixed tocopherols                               - 5 mg



Most of the health benefits of flax seed oil are attributable to its high content of Alpha-Linolenic Acid, however this range of Essential Fatty Acids are related to each other in physiological terms as there is an interdependency within this group.

Significant additional benefits accrue from its Lignans content.


The traditional oil does have problems as flax seed oil is extremely sensitive to heat, light and oxygen attack due to its high alpha-linolenic acid content. It is very well documented that flax seed oil may cause gastrointestinal discomfort in some people.


The highest quality flax seed oil liquid products need to ensure that they have all oxygen excluded from their container and should be stored under refrigeration.


This susceptibility to degradation is the main reason why we spent the time to make this into a Food State product. Unstable or oxidised flax seed oil consumption may increase the risk of prostate cancer and heart disease according to some influential reports, See Reference 1.


Immune System Benefits


With regard to the immune system and the Food State EFA we can say that stable flax seed oil is importantly involved with lowering the body’s production of Arachidonic acid and does help counteract the conversion of Arachidonic acid into inflammatory Eicosanoids.  We know also that this oil does lower the body’s production of Prostaglandin E2 and serum Thromboxane B2 levels.


Cardiovascular System Benefits


Flax seed oil is involved with helping to prevent Atherosclerosis and abnormal blood clotting. This combination of EFAs is known to have a significant role in lowering elevated blood pressure in Hypertension



We also know that these EFAs do help alleviate some cases of Alopecia Areata

The EFA complex is known to be helpful for the treatment of dandruff and does

improve the condition of “dull” Hair


Eye Sight

Importantly the EFA complex is known to improve sight and colour perception (due to the alpha-linolenic acid (LNA) content of the EFA complex which in a stable form is metabolized within the body to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) - the Omega-3 Fatty acid that benefits eyesight)




The EFA complex has been shown to lower total serum cholesterol levels by up to 9% and lower LDL Cholesterol levels by up to 18%. Reference 2


The EFA complex is a useful adjunctive treatment for obesity and does help the kidneys to eliminate excess water and increase the body's basal metabolic rate, oxidation rate and production of energy (due to the alpha-linolenic acid (lna) content of an EFA complex), in addition the lna content of the EFA complex may function as an uncoupling agent



The Nervous System.


The EFA complex does improve the condition of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (reference 3) patients and may treat some cases of depression

These EFAs have been found to alleviate manic depression (reference 4) and help improve the mental function of elderly people; interestingly the EFA complex has been found beneficial for the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis. 





The EFA complex has been shown to improve the metabolism and absorption of Calcium.




The EFA complex has been shown to make pregnancy less "eventful" and may make deliveries easier and may produce healthier offspring




Recent concerns regarding certain fats and Prostate Cancer:


Some supplemental EFA’s (essential fatty acids), in particular those found in fish oils, have generated concern in recent years for possible links to prostate cancer. One particular fat is ALA (alpha-linolenic acid). The ALA in the Food State protein matrix performs entirely differently from the isolated chemical form normally found in supplements. The health side effects relate to the stray chemicals unrecognised by the human body and subject to harmful oxidation. This is not the case with the Foodstate EFA complex, because, like all foodstate preparations, it is created as a protein food matrix, emulating nature’s natural processes.        



Reference 1


Peer-Reviewed Professional Journals


Brouwer, I. A, et al.  Dietary alpha-linolenic acid is associated with reduced risk of fatal coronary heart disease, but increased prostate cancer risk:  a meta-analysis.  Journal of Nutrition.  134(4):919-922, 2004.


Wageningen Centre for Food Sciences, Wageningen, the Netherlands.


The objective of this meta-analysis was to estimate quantitatively the associations between intake of alpha-linolenic acid [ALA, the (n-3) fatty acid in vegetable oils], mortality from heart disease, and the occurrence of prostate cancer in observational studies.  The authors identified 5 prospective cohort studies that reported intake of ALA and mortality from heart disease.  The authors also reviewed data from 3 clinical trials on ALA intake and heart disease.  In addition, we identified 9 cohort and case-control studies that reported on the association between ALA intake or blood levels and incidence or prevalence of prostate cancer. 


The authors combined risk estimates across studies using a random-effects model.  High ALA intake was associated with reduced risk of fatal heart disease in prospective cohort studies (combined relative risk 0.79, 95% CI 0.60-1.04).  Three open-label trials also indicated that ALA may protect against heart disease.  However, epidemiologic studies also showed an increased risk of prostate cancer in men with a high intake or blood level of ALA (combined relative risk 1.70; 95% CI 1.12-2.58). 

This meta-analysis shows that consumption of ALA might reduce heart disease mortality.  However, the association between high intake of ALA and prostate cancer is of concern and warrants further study.




Christensen, J. H., et al.  Prostate tissue and leukocyte levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in men with benign prostate hyperplasia or prostate cancer.  BJU Int.  97(2):270-273, 2006.


Department of Nephrology, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark.


The objective of this study was to compare the levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in leukocytes and prostate tissue in men with prostate cancer or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), as dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs has been linked to the risk of prostate cancer; the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was also compared to prostate tissue levels of n-3 PUFAs. 


Prostate tissue was obtained and leukocytes isolated from 20 men with prostate cancer and 35 with BPH.  The n-3 PUFAs alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were measured in prostate tissue and in peripheral blood leukocytes using gas chromatography. PSA levels were measured in all of the men.  There was a strong positive correlation between EPA and DHA in leukocytes and in prostate tissue (EPA: r = 0.80, DHA: r = 0.53, both P < 0.001) in all the men, whereas there was no association between the content of ALA in leukocytes and in prostate tissue (r = -0.15).  Men with BPH had similar levels of ALA in leukocytes and in prostate tissue, but men with prostate cancer had more ALA in prostate tissue than in leukocytes. 


The PSA level was significantly positively correlated with ALA level in prostate tissue (r = 0.42, P < 0.01) but there was no significant correlation between PSA level and EPA and DHA levels.  There were no significant correlations between PSA level and n-3 PUFA levels in leukocytes.  Dietary intake of the marine n-3 PUFAs reflected in EPA and DHA levels in leukocytes are also reflected in EPA and DHA levels in prostate tissue in men with and without prostate cancer.  However, there is a discrepancy between the levels of ALA in leukocytes and in prostate tissue, with higher levels in men with prostate cancer.  This is in accordance with the strong positive association between PSA and ALA levels in prostate tissue.  This study therefore does not support the hypothesis that intake of marine n-3 PUFAs might protect against prostate cancer, but lends support to the deleterious role of ALA in the development of prostate cancer.


De Stefani, E., et al.  Alpha-linolenic acid and risk of prostate cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay.  Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev.  9(3):335-338, 2000.


In the time period of 1994-1998, a case-control study on diet and prostate cancer was carried out in Uruguay to examine the risk associated with fat intake.  217 incident cases afflicted with advanced prostate cancer were frequency-matched with 431 controls on age, residence, and urban/rural status.  The analysis was carried out using unconditional multiple logistic regression. 


Alpha-linolenic acid was associated with a strong positive association (fourth quartile of intake odds ratio, 3.91; 95% confidence interval, 1.50-10.1) after controlling for total calorie intake and for the other types of fat.  The effect was similar when alpha-linolenic acid was analyzed by its sources of origin (odds ratio for vegetable linolenic acid, 2.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-4.07). 


Including this report, five of six studies that have examined the relationship between alpha-linolenic acid and prostate cancer yielded a positive association, which was significant in four studies.  Thus, there appears to be evidence of a role of alpha-linolenic acid in prostate carcinogenesis.



Leitzmann, M. F., et al.  Dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and the risk of prostate cancer.  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.  80(1):204-216, 2004.


Nutritional Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, USA.


Laboratory studies have shown that n-3 fatty acids inhibit and n-6 fatty acids stimulate prostate tumor growth, but whether the dietary intake of these fatty acids affects prostate cancer risk in humans remains unclear.  The authors prospectively evaluated the association between intakes of alpha-linolenic (ALA; 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic (EPA; 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic (DHA; 22:6n-3), linoleic (LA; 18:2n-6), and arachidonic (AA; 20:4n-6) acids and prostate cancer risk.  A cohort of 47 866 US men aged 40-75 y with no cancer history in 1986 was followed for 14 y.  During follow-up, 2965 new cases of total prostate cancer were ascertained, 448 of which were advanced prostate cancer. 


ALA intake was unrelated to the risk of total prostate cancer.  In contrast, the multivariate relative risks (RRs) of advanced prostate cancer from comparisons of extreme quintiles of ALA from nonanimal sources and ALA from meat and dairy sources were 2.02 (95% CI: 1.35, 3.03) and 1.53 (0.88, 2.66), respectively.  EPA and DHA intakes were related to lower prostate cancer risk.  The multivariate RRs of total and advanced prostate cancer from comparisons of extreme quintiles of the combination of EPA and DHA were 0.89 (0.77, 1.04) and 0.74 (0.49, 1.08), respectively.  LA and AA intakes were unrelated to the risk of prostate cancer.  The multivariate RR of advanced prostate cancer from a comparison of extreme quintiles of the ratio of LA to ALA was 0.62 (0.45, 0.86). 


Increased dietary intakes of ALA may increase the risk of advanced prostate cancer.  In contrast, EPA and DHA intakes may reduce the risk of total and advanced prostate cancer.




Reference 2.


Peer-Reviewed Professional Journals


Cunnane, S. C., et al.  High alpha-linolenic acid flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum):  some nutritional properties in humans.  British Journal of Nutrition.  69(2):443-453, 1993.


Yamashita, K., et al.  Comparative effects of flaxseed and sesame seed on vitamin E and cholesterol levels in rats.  Lipids.  38(12):1249-1255, 2003.


Department of Food and Nutrition, Sugiyama Jogakuen University, School of Life Studies, Nagoya, Japan.


Flaxseed and sesame seed both contain more than 40% fat, about 20% protein, and vitamin E, mostly gamma-tocopherol.  Furthermore, both contain considerable amounts of plant lignans.  However, flaxseed contains 54% alpha-linolenic acid, but sesame seed only 0.6%, and the chemical structures of flaxseed and sesame lignans are different.  The authors investigated the differential effects of flaxseed and sesame seed on plasma and tissue gamma-tocopherol, TBARS, and cholesterol concentrations. Rats were fed experimental diets for 4 wk: vitamin E-free, (-VE), gamma-tocopherol, flaxseed (FS), sesame seed (SS), flaxseed oil (FO), FO with sesamin (FOS), and defatted flaxseed (DFF).  SS and FOS diets induced significantly higher gamma-tocopherol concentrations in plasma and liver compared with FS, FO, and DFF diets. 


Groups fed FS, FO, and FOS showed lower plasma total cholesterol compared with the SS and DFF groups.  Higher TBARS concentrations in plasma and liver were observed in the FS and FO groups but not in the FOS group.  These results suggest that sesame seed and its lignans induced higher gamma-tocopherol and lower TBARS concentrations, whereas flaxseed lignans had no such effects.  Further, alpha-linolenic acid produced strong plasma cholesterol-lowering effects and higher TBARS concentrations.



Reference 3


Peer-Reviewed Professional Journals


Joshi, K., et al.  Supplementation with flax oil and vitamin C improves the outcome of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).  Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids.  74(1):17-21, 2006.


Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences (ISHS), University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune, Maharashtra, India.


Considerable clinical and experimental evidence now supports the idea that deficiencies or imbalances in certain highly unsaturated fatty acids may contribute to a range of common developmental disorders including Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).  Few intervention studies with LCPUFA supplementation have reported inconsistent and marginal results.  This pilot study evaluates the effect of alpha linolenic acid (ALA)-rich nutritional supplementation in the form of flax oil and antioxidant emulsion on blood fatty acids composition and behavior in children with ADHD.  Post-supplementation levels of RBC membrane fatty acids were significantly higher than pretreatment levels as well as the levels in control.  There was significant improvement in the symptoms of ADHD reflected by reduction in total hyperactivity scores of ADHD children derived from ADHD rating scale.



Reference 4.


Peer-Reviewed Professional Journals


Stoll, A. L., et al.  Omega-3 fatty acids and bipolar disorder: a review.  Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids.  60:329-337, 1999.



Stoll, A. L., et al.  Omega 3 fatty acids in bipolar disorder: a preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.  Arch Gen Psychiatry.  56(5):407-412, 1999.


Brigham and Women's Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass, USA.


Omega3 fatty acids may inhibit neuronal signal transduction pathways in a manner similar to that of lithium carbonate and valproate, 2 effective treatments for bipolar disorder.  The present study was performed to examine whether omega3 fatty acids also exhibit mood-stabilizing properties in bipolar disorder.  A 4-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing omega3 fatty acids (9.6 g/d) vs placebo (olive oil), in addition to usual treatment, in 30 patients with bipolar disorder.  A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of the cohort found that the omega3 fatty acid patient group had a significantly longer period of remission than the placebo group (P = .002; Mantel-Cox). 


In addition, for nearly every other outcome measure, the omega3 fatty acid group performed better than the placebo group.  Omega3 fatty acids were well tolerated and improved the short-term course of illness in this preliminary study of patients with bipolar disorder.